Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry Group

✦ Cameca 6F ion microprobe of the Geochemistry/Cosmochemistry Group, DTM. (photo: Steve Shirey)

DTM's Geochemistry/Cosmochemistry Group

“The DTM Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry Group —united by their ability to exploit sophisticated analytical instruments— is expert in the discovery and characterization of presolar grains; the chemistry and chronology of early solar system material, including meteorites, interplanetary dusk particles (IDPs), and samples from cometary and planetary bodies; chemical processing on Earth associated with early global differentiation, continent formation, and subduction; and dynamical mixing in the Earth's mantle revealed by products of mantle melting.” (Former Director, Sean Solomon, describing the G/CG to Carnegie trustees)

The Geochemistry/Cosmochemistry Group has four active staff members, Conel Alexander, Rick Carlson, Larry Nittler, and Steven Shirey and one staff member emeritus, Fouad Tera. Our group recently lost long-time staff member Erik Hauri. With the support of chemistry lab manager, Mary Horan, mass spectrometer lab manager, Tim Mock, and ion probe specialist, Jianhua Wang, research projects involving the staff can range from a short, informal nature to those that are long term. Research collaborations are welcome on almost any professional level: as an intern, a pre-doctoral fellow, a post-doctoral fellow, a visiting scientist, or a Tuve Fellow. Many projects are NSF or NASA funded, but with the Carnegie Institution’s high level of ongoing lab support, important scientific questions can be attacked without the proposal lead-time that NSF or NASA funding requires. The most fruitful collaborations are those that align with the interests of the staff and the type of analyses suited to our facilities (see below).

The scientific environment at DTM is stimulating and the Washington area is the best in the world as a supportive environment for science. The Washington area hosts a remarkable collection of institutions and laboratories with which joint research projects often can be carried out: Geophysical Lab, Goddard Space Flight Center, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Naval Research Laboratory, Smithsonian Institution, US Geological Survey, and University of Maryland. Many have ongoing programs in Earth and Planetary Science. Interested in the possibilities? Please contact any one of the staff directly and/or see Academic Opportunities page.

Available Analytical Facilities

Thermal ionization mass spectrometer: Thermo-Fisher Triton

Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer: Nu Plasma HR, Nu Plasma II, Thermo iCap Qc, Photon Machines Analyte-193 Laser

Secondary ion mass spectrometer: NanoSIMS 50L, Cameca IMS 6f

Scanning electron microscope: JOEL SX-6500,

Available with Geophysical Lab: JOEL Field Emission EPMA, Zeiss Auriga SEM, FEI plasma FIB, WiTec confocal Raman

Chemistry labs: Multiple clean-room facility equipped for all aspects of sample preparation

Supporting labs: Optical microscopy lab, microsampling, rock room, machine shop, electronics lab

A more detailed description of these analytical facilities can be found on the DTM web page here.

A Tradition of Groundbreaking Research

As of March 2019, the 5-person Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry Group staff had authored some 60 separate, independent papers in Science and Nature –highly cited journals known for publishing groundbreaking research. This accomplishment highlights the intellectual vitality of our group and indeed the whole Carnegie Institution model for carrying out scientific research. A list of these papers with links to their PDF's can be seen below.

Tot (w/ no dups)

Nature (17)

Science (43)

Alexander

2

10

Carlson

8

11

Hauri

5

7

Nittler

1

16

Shirey

6

10

Geochemistry/Cosmochemistry Group Papers in Science and Nature

Alexander, C. M. O’D., A. P. Boss, and R. W. Carlson, Cosmochemistry - The early evolution of the inner solar system: a meteoritic perspective, Science 293 (no. 5527), 64-68, 2001. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.105287

Alexander, C. M. O'D., R. Bowden, M. L. Fogel, K. T. Howard, C. D. K. Herd, L. R. Nittler, The Provenances of Asteroids, and Their Contributions to the Volatile Inventories of the Terrestrial Planets. Science 337, 721- 723 (2012)

Alexander, C. M. O’D., J. N. Grossman, D. S. Ebel, and F. J. Ciesla, The formation conditions of chondrules and chondrites, Science 320 (no. 5883), 1617-1619, 2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1156561

Blewett, D. T., N. L. Chabot, B. W. Denevi, C. M. Ernst, J. W. Head, N. R. Izenberg, S. L. Murchie, S. C. Solomon, L. R. Nittler, T. J. McCoy, Z. Y. Xiao, D. M. H. Baker, C. I. Fassett, S. E. Braden, J. Oberst, F. Scholten, F. Preusker, and D. M. Hurwitz, Hollows on Mercury: MESSENGER evidence for geologically recent volatile-related activity, Science 333 (no. 6051), 1856-1859, 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1211681

Borg, L. E., J. N. Connelly, M. Boyet, and R. W. Carlson, Chronological evidence that the Moon is either young or did not have a global magma ocean, Nature 477 (no. 7362), 70-U150, 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature10328

Boyet, M., and R. W. Carlson, Nd-142 evidence for early (> 4.53 Ga) global differentiation of the silicate Earth, Science 309 (no. 5734), 576-581, 2005. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1113634

Brandon, A. D., R. A. Creaser, S. B. Shirey, and R. W. Carlson, Osmium recycling in subduction zones, Science 272 (no. 5263), 861-864, 1996. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.272.5263.861

Brownlee, D., P. Tsou, J. Aleon, C. M. O. Alexander, T. Araki, S. Bajt, G. A. Baratta, R. Bastien, P. Bland, P. Bleuet, J. Borg, J. P. Bradley, A. Brearley, F. Brenker, S. Brennan, J. C. Bridges, N. D. Browning, J. R. Brucato, E. Bullock, M. J. Burchell, H. Busemann, A. Butterworth, M. Chaussidon, A. Cheuvront, M. F. Chi, M. J. Cintala, B. C. Clark, S. J. Clemett, G. Cody, L. Colangeli, G. Cooper, P. Cordier, C. Daghlian, Z. R. Dai, L. D'Hendecourt, Z. Djouadi, G. Dominguez, T. Duxbury, J. P. Dworkin, D. S. Ebel, T. E. Economou, S. Fakra, S. A. J. Fairey, S. Fallon, G. Ferrini, T. Ferroir, H. Fleckenstein, C. Floss, G. Flynn, I. A. Franchi, M. Fries, Z. Gainsforth, J. P. Gallien, M. Genge, M. K. Gilles, P. Gillet, J. Gilmour, D. P. Glavin, M. Gounelle, M. M. Grady, G. A. Graham, P. G. Grant, S. F. Green, F. Grossemy, L. Grossman, J. N. Grossman, Y. Guan, K. Hagiya, R. Harvey, P. Heck, G. F. Herzog, P. Hoppe, F. Horz, J. Huth, I. D. Hutcheon, K. Ignatyev, H. Ishii, M. Ito, D. Jacob, C. Jacobsen, S. Jacobsen, S. Jones, D. Joswiak, A. Jurewicz, A. T. Kearsley, L. P. Keller, H. Khodja, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, J. Kissel, A. Krot, F. Langenhorst, A. Lanzirotti, L. Le, L. A. Leshin, J. Leitner, L. Lemelle, H. Leroux, M. C. Liu, K. Luening, I. Lyon, G. MacPherson, M. A. Marcus, K. Marhas, B. Marty, G. Matrajt, K. McKeegan, A. Meibom, V. Mennella, K. Messenger, S. Messenger, T. Mikouchi, S. Mostefaoui, T. Nakamura, T. Nakano, M. Newville, L. R. Nittler, I. Ohnishi, K. Ohsumi, K. Okudaira, D. A. Papanastassiou, R. Palma, M. E. Palumbo, R. O. Pepin, D. Perkins, M. Perronnet, P. Pianetta, W. Rao, F. J. M. Rietmeijer, F. Robert, D. Rost, A. Rotundi, R. Ryan, S. A. Sandford, C. S. Schwandt, T. H. See, D. Schlutter, J. Sheffield-Parker, A. Simionovici, S. Simon, I. Sitnitsky, C. J. Snead, M. K. Spencer, F. J. Stadermann, A. Steele, T. Stephan, R. Stroud, J. Susini, S. R. Sutton, Y. Suzuki, M. Taheri, S. Taylor, N. Teslich, K. Tomeoka, N. Tomioka, A. Toppani, J. M. Trigo-Rodriguez, D. Troadec, A. Tsuchiyama, A. J. Tuzzolino, T. Tyliszczak, K. Uesugi, M. Velbel, J. Vellenga, E. Vicenzi, L. Vincze, J. Warren, I. Weber, M. Weisberg, A. J. Westphal, S. Wirick, D. Wooden, B. Wopenka, P. Wozniakiewicz, I. Wright, H. Yabuta, H. Yano, E. D. Young, R. N. Zare, T. Zega, K. Ziegler, L. Zimmerman, E. Zinner, and M. Zolensky, Comet 81P/Wild 2 under a microscope, Science 314 (no. 5806), 1711-1716, 2006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1135840

Busemann, H., A. F. Young, C. M. O. Alexander, P. Hoppe, S. Mukhopadhyay, and L. R. Nittler, Interstellar chemistry recorded in organic matter from primitive meteorites, Science 312 (no. 5774), 727-730, 2006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1123878

Carlson, R. W., M. Boyet, and M. Horan, Chondrite barium, neodymium, and samarium isotopic heterogeneity and early earth differentiation, Science 316 (no. 5828), 1175-1178, 2007. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1140189

Carlson, R. W., D. R. Hunter, and F. Barker, Sm-Nd age and isotopic systematics of the bimodal suite, ancient gneiss complex, Swaziland, Nature 305 (no. 5936),701-704, 1983. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/305701a0

Cleeves. L. I., E. A. Bergin, C. M. O’D. Alexander, F. J. Du, D. Graninger, K. I. Oberg, and T. J. Harries. The ancient heritage of water ice in the solar system, Science 345 (no. 6204), 1590-1593, 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1258055

Cuzzi, J. N., and C. M. O. Alexander, Chondrule formation in particle-rich nebular regions at least hundreds of kilometres across, Nature 441 (no. 7092), 483-485, 2006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature04834

Eiler, J. M., K. A. Farley, J. W. Valley, E. M. Stolper, E. H. Hauri, and H. Craig, Oxygen-isotope evidence against recycled sediment in the mantle sources of Pitcairn Island lavas, Nature 377 (no. 6545), 138-141, 1995. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/377138a0

Ellam, R. M., R. W. Carlson, and S. B. Shirey, Evidence from Re-Os isotopes for plume lithosphere mixing in Karoo flood-basalt genesis, Nature 359 (no. 6397),718-721, 1992. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/359718a0

Hauri, E. H., Major-element variability in the Hawaiian mantle plume, Nature 382 (no. 6590), 415-419, 1996. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/382415a0

Hauri, E. H., T. Weinreich, A. E. Saal, M. C. Rutherford, and J. A. Van Orman, High pre-eruptive water contents preserved in lunar melt Inclusions, Science 333 (no. 6039), 213-215, 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1204626

Head, J. W., C. R. Chapman, R. G. Strom, C. I. Fassett, B. W. Denevi, D. T. Blewett, C. M. Ernst, T. R. Watters, S. C. Solomon, S. L. Murchie, L. M. Prockter, N. L. Chabot, J. J. Gillis-Davis, J. L. Whitten, T. A. Goudge, D. M. H. Baker, D. M. Hurwitz, L. R. Ostrach, Z. Y. Xiao, W. J. Merline, L. Kerber, J. L. Dickson, J. Oberst, P. K. Byrne, C. Klimczak, and L. R. Nittler, Flood volcanism in the northern high latitudes of Mercury revealed by MESSENGER, Science 333 (no. 6051),1853-1856, 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1211997

Herd, C. D. K., A. Blinova, D. N. Simkus, Y. S. Huang, R. Tarozo, C. M. O. Alexander, F. Gyngard, L. R. Nittler, G. D. Cody, M. L. Fogel, Y. Kebukawa, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, R. W. Hilts, G. F. Slater, D. P. Glavin, J. P. Dworkin, M. P. Callahan, J. E. Elsila, B. T. De Gregorio, and R. M. Stroud, Origin and evolution of prebiotic organic matter as inferred from the Tagish Lake meteorite, Science 332 (no. 6035),1304-1307, 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1203290

Jackson, M. G., and R. W. Carlson, An ancient recipe for flood-basalt genesis, Nature 476 (no. 7360), 316-U77, 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature10326

Jackson, M. G., R. W. Carlson, M. D. Kurz, P. D. Kempton, D. Francis, and J. Blusztajn, Evidence for the survival of the oldest terrestrial mantle reservoir, Nature 466 (no. 7308), 853-U84, 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature09287

Keller, L. P., S. Bajt, G. A. Baratta, J. Borg, J. P. Bradley, D. E. Brownlee, H. Busemann, J. R. Brucato, M. Burchell, L. Colangeli, L. d'Hendecourt, Z. Djouadi, G. Ferrini, G. Flynn, I. A. Franchi, M. Fries, M. M. Grady, G. A. Graham, F. Grossemy, A. Kearsley, G. Matrajt, K. Nakamura-Messenger, V. Mennella, L. Nittler, M. E. Palumbo, F. J. Stadermann, P. Tsou, A. Rotundi, S. A. Sandford, C. Snead, A. Steele, D. Wooden, and M. Zolensky, Infrared spectroscopy of comet 81P/Wild 2 samples returned by Stardust, Science 314 (no. 5806), 1728-1731, 2006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1135796

Koch, P. L., J. Heisinger, C. Moss, R. W. Carlson, M. L. Fogel, and A. K. Behrensmeyer, Isotopic tracking of change in diet and habitat use in African elephants, Science 267 (no. 5202), 1340-1343, 1995. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.267.5202.1340

Koeberl, C., and S. B. Shirey, Detection of a meteoritic component in Ivory Coast tektites with rhenium-osmium isotopes, Science 261 (no. 5121), 595-598, 1993. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.261.5121.595

Krot, A. N., A. Meibom, S. S. Russell, C. M. O. Alexander, T. E. Jeffries, and K. Keil, A new astrophysical setting for chondrule formation, Science 291 (no. 5509),1776-1779, 2001. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.291.5509.1776

Lambert, D. D., J. W. Morgan, R. J. Walker, S. B. Shirey, R. W. Carlson, M. L. Zientek, and M. S. Koski, Rhenium-osmium and samarium-neodymium isotopic systematics of the Stillwater Complex, Science 244 (no. 4909), 1169-1174, 1989. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.244.4909.1169

Lawrence, D. J., W. C. Feldman, J. O. Goldsten, S. Maurice, P. N. Peplowski, B. J. Anderson, D. Bazell, R. L. McNutt, L. R. Nittler, T. H. Prettyman, D. J. Rodgers, S. C. Solomon, S. Z. Weider, Evidence for Water Ice Near Mercury's North Pole from MESSENGER Neutron Spectrometer Measurements. Science 339, 292-296 (2013)

McKeegan, K. D., J. Aleon, J. Bradley, D. Brownlee, H. Busemann, A. Butterworth, M. Chaussidon, S. Fallon, C. Floss, J. Gilmour, M. Gounelle, G. Graham, Y. B. Guan, P. R. Heck, P. Hoppe, I. D. Hutcheon, J. Huth, H. Ishii, M. Ito, S. B. Jacobsen, A. Kearsley, L. A. Leshin, M. C. Liu, I. Lyon, K. Marhas, B. Marty, G. Matrajt, A. Meibom, S. Messenger, S. Mostefaoui, S. Mukhopadhyay, K. Nakamura-Messenger, L. Nittler, R. Palma, R. O. Pepin, D. A. Papanastassiou, F. Robert, D. Schlutter, C. J. Snead, F. J. Stadermann, R. Stroud, P. Tsou, A. Westphal, E. D. Young, K. Ziegler, L. Zimmermann, and E. Zinner, Isotopic compositions of cometary matter returned by Stardust, Science 314 (no. 5806),1724-1728, 2006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1135992

Nittler, L. R., C. M. O. Alexander, J. Wang, and X. Gao, Meteoritic oxide grain from supernova found, Nature 393 (no. 6682), 222-222, 1998. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/30377

Nittler, L. R., R. D. Starr, S. Z. Weider, T. J. McCoy, W. V. Boynton, D. S. Ebel, C. M. Ernst, L. G. Evans, J. O. Goldsten, D. K. Hamara, D. J. Lawrence, R. L. McNutt, C. E. Schlemm, S. C. Solomon, and A. L. Sprague, The major-element composition of Mercury's surface from MESSENGER X-ray spectrometry, Science 333 (no. 6051), 1847-1850, 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1211567

Olson, P., P. G. Silver, and R. W. Carlson, The large-scale structure of convection in the Earth’s mantle, Nature 344 (no. 6263), 209-215, 1990. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/344209a0

O'Neil, J., R. W. Carlson, D. Francis, and R. K. Stevenson, Neodymium-142 evidence for hadean mafic crust, Science 321 (no. 5897), 1828-1831, 2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1161925

O’Neil, J., and R. W. Carlson. Building Archean cratons from Hadean mafic crust, Science (no. 6330), 1199-1202, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aah3823

Pearson, D. G., G. A. Snyder, S. B. Shirey, L. A. Taylor, R. W. Carlson, and N. V. Sobolev, Archean Re-Os age for Siberian eclogites and constraints on Archean tectonics, Nature 374 (no. 6524), 711-713, 1995. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/374711a0

Peplowski, P. N., L. G. Evans, S. A. Hauck, T. J. McCoy, W. V. Boynton, J. J. Gillis-Davis, D. S. Ebel, J. O. Goldsten, D. K. Hamara, D. J. Lawrence, R. L. McNutt, L. R. Nittler, S. C. Solomon, E. A. Rhodes, A. L. Sprague, R. D. Starr, and K. R. Stockstill-Cahill, Radioactive elements on Mercury's surface from MESSENGER: implications for the planet's formation and evolution, Science 333 (no. 6051),1850-1852, 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1211576

Richardson, S. H., and S. B. Shirey, Continental mantle signature of Bushveld magmas and coeval diamonds, Nature 453 (no. 7197), 910-913, 2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature07073

Righter, K., and E. H. Hauri, Compatibility of rhenium in garnet during mantle melting and magma genesis, Science 280 (no. 5370), 1737-1741, 1998. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.280.5370.1737

Rizo, H., R. J. Walker, R. W. Carlson, M. F. Horan, S. Mukhopadhyay, V. Manthos, D. Francis, and M. G. Jackson. Preservation of Earth-forming eents in the tungsten isotopic composition of modern flood basalts, Science 352 (no. 6287), 809-812, 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aad8563

Saal, A. E., S. R. Hart, N. Shimizu, E. H. Hauri, and G. D. Layne, Pb isotopic variability in melt inclusions from oceanic island basalts, Polynesia, Science 282 (no. 5393), 1481-1484, 1998. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.282.5393.1481

Saal, A. E., E. H. Hauri, C. H. Langmuir, and M. R. Perfit, Vapour undersaturation in primitive mid-ocean-ridge basalt and the volatile content of Earth's upper mantle, Nature 419 (no. 6906), 451-455, 2002. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature01073

Saal, A. E., E. H. Hauri, M. Lo Cascio, J. A. Van Orman, M. C. Rutherford, and R. F. Cooper, Volatile content of lunar volcanic glasses and the presence of water in the Moon's interior, Nature 454 (no. 7201), 192-U38, 2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature07047

Saal,A.E, E. H. Hauri, J. A. Van Orman, M. J. Rutherford, Hydrogen Isotopes in Lunar Volcanic Glasses and Melt Inclusions Reveal a Carbonaceous Chondrite Heritage. Science 340, 1317-1320 (2013)

Sarafian, E., G. A. Gaetani, E. H. Hauri.,and A. R. Sarafian. Experimental constraints on the damp peridotite solidus and oceanic mantle potential temperature, Science 355 (no. 6328), 942-944, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aaj2165

Sandford, S. A., J. Aleon, C. M. O. Alexander, T. Araki, S. Bajt, G. A. Baratta, J. Borg, J. P. Bradley, D. E. Brownlee, J. R. Brucato, M. J. Burchell, H. Busemann, A. Butterworth, S. J. Clemett, G. Cody, L. Colangeli, G. Cooper, L. D'Hendecourt, Z. Djouadi, J. P. Dworkin, G. Ferrini, H. Fleckenstein, G. J. Flynn, I. A. Franchi, M. Fries, M. K. Gilles, D. P. Glavin, M. Gounelle, F. Grossemy, C. Jacobsen, L. P. Keller, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, J. Leitner, G. Matrajt, A. Meibom, V. Mennella, S. Mostefaoui, L. R. Nittler, M. E. Palumbo, D. A. Papanastassiou, F. Robert, A. Rotundi, C. J. Snead, M. K. Spencer, F. J. Stadermann, A. Steele, T. Stephan, P. Tsou, T. Tyliszczak, A. J. Westphal, S. Wirick, B. Wopenka, H. Yabuta, R. N. Zare, and M. E. Zolensky, Organics captured from comet 81P/Wild 2 by the Stardust spacecraft, Science 314 (no. 5806), 1720-1724, 2006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1135841

Schonbachler, M., R. W. Carlson, M. F. Horan, T. D. Mock, and E. H. Hauri, Heterogeneous accretion and the moderately volatile element budget of Earth, Science 328 (no. 5980), 884-887, 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1186239

Shirey, S. B., J. F. Bender, and C. H. Langmuir, 3-component isotopic heterogeneity near the Oceanographer Transform, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Nature 325 (no. 6101), 217-223, 1987. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/325217a0

Shirey, S. B., and G. N. Hanson, Mantle-derived Archean monozodiorites and trachyandesites, Nature 310 (no. 5974), 222-224, 1984. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/310222a0

Shirey, S. B., J. W. Harris, S. H. Richardson, M. J. Fouch, D. E. James, P. Cartigny, P. Deines, and F. Viljoen, Diamond genesis, seismic structure, and evolution of the Kaapvaal-Zimbabwe craton, Science 297 (no. 5587), 1683-1686, 2002. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1072384

Shirey, S. B., and S. H. Richardson, Start of the Wilson Cycle at 3 Ga shown by diamonds from subcontinental mantle, Science 333 (no. 6041), 434-436, 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1206275

Slavin, J. A., M. H. Acuna, B. J. Anderson, D. N. Baker, M. Benna, G. Gloeckler, R. E. Gold, G. C. Ho, R. M. Killen, H. Korth, S. M. Krimigis, R. L. McNutt, L. R. Nittler, J. M. Raines, D. Schriver, S. C. Solomon, R. D. Starr, P. Travnicek, and T. H. Zurbuchen, Mercury's magnetosphere after MESSENGER's first flyby, Science 321 (no. 5885), 85-89, 2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1159040

Slavin, J. A., B. J. Anderson, D. N. Baker, M. Benna, S. A. Boardsen, G. Gloeckler, R. E. Gold, G. C. Ho, H. Korth, S. M. Krimigis, R. L. McNutt, L. R. Nittler, J. M. Raines, M. Sarantos, D. Schriver, S. C. Solomon, R. D. Starr, P. M. Travnicek, and T. H. Zurbuchen, MESSENGER observations of extreme loading and unloading of Mercury's magnetic tail, Science 329 (no. 5992), 665-668, 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1188067

Smit, K.V., Shirey, S.B., Hauri, E.H., and Stern, R.A. (2019) Sulfur isotopes in diamonds reveal differences in continent construction. Science 364, 383-385. http://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaw9548

Smith, E. M., S. B. Shirey, F. Nestola, E. S. Bullock, J. H. Wang, S. H. Richardson, and W. Y. Wang. Large gem diamonds from metallic liquid in Earth’s deep mantle,Science 354 (no. 6318), 1403-1405, 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aal1303

Smith, E. M., Shirey, S. B., Richardson S. H., Nestola, F., Bullock, E. S., Wang, J., & Wang, W. (2018). Blue boron-bearing diamonds from Earth’s lower mantle. Nature, 560, 84–87. http://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0334-5

Steele,A., F. M. McCubbin, M. Fries, L. Kater, N. Z. Boctor, M. L. Fogel, P. G. Conrad, M. Glamoclija, M. Spencer, A. L. Morrow, M. R. Hammond, R. N. Zare, E. P. Vicenzi, S. Siljestrom, R. Bowden, C. D. K. Herd, B. O. Mysen, S. B. Shirey, H. E. F. Amundsen, A. H. Treiman, E. S. Bullock, A. J. T. Jull, A Reduced Organic Carbon Component in Martian Basalts. Science 337, 212-215 (2012)

Stroud, R. M., L. R. Nittler, and C. M. O. Alexander, Polymorphism in presolar Al2O3 grains from asymptotic giant branch stars, Science 305 (no. 5689), 1455-1457, 2004. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1101099

Walter, M. J., S. C. Kohn, D. Araujo, G. P. Bulanova, C. B. Smith, E. Gaillou, J. Wang, A. Steele, and S. B. Shirey, Deep mantle cycling of oceanic crust: evidence from diamonds and their mineral inclusions, Science 333 (no. 6052), 54-57, 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1209300

Westphal, A. J., R. M. Stroud, H. A. Bechtel, F. E. Brenker, A. L. Butterworth, G. J. Flynn, D. R. Frank, Z. Gainsforth, J. K. Hillier, F. Postberg, A. S. Simionovici, V. J. Sterken, L. R. Nittler, C. Allen, D. Anderson, A. Ansari, S. Bajt, R. K. Bastien, N. Bassim, J. Bridges, D. E. Brownlee, M. Burchell, M. Burghammer, H. Changela, P. Cloetens, A. M. Davis, R. Doll, C. Floss, E. Grün, P. R. Heck, P. Hoppe, B. Hudson, J. Huth, A. Kearsley, A. J. King, B. Lai, J. Leitner, L. Lemelle, A. Leonard, H. Leroux, R. Lettieri, W. Marchant, R. Ogliore, W. J. Ong, M. C. Price, S. A. Sandford, J.-A. Sans Tresseras, S. Schmitz, T. Schoonjans, K. Schreiber, G. Silversmit, V. A. Solé, R. Srama, F. Stadermann, T. Stephan, J. Stodolna, S. Sutton, M. Trieloff, P. Tsou, T. Tyliszczak, B. Vekemans, L. Vincze, J. Von Korff, N. Wordsworth, D. Zevin, M. E. Zolensky, 30714 Stardust@home dusters. Evidence for interstellar origin of seven dust particles collected by the Stardust spacecraft, Science 345 (no. 6198), 786-791, 2014. DOI: 10.1126/science.1252496Wilson, A. H., S. B. Shirey, and R. W. Carlson, Archaean ultra-depleted komatiites formed by hydrous melting of cratonic mantle, Nature 423 (no. 6942), 858-861, 2003. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature01701

Wilson, A.H., S. B. Shirey, R. W. Carlson, Archaean ultra-depleted komatiites formed by hydrous melting of cratonic mantle. Nature 423, 858-861 (2003)

Wolfe, C. J., S. C. Solomon, G. Laske, J. A. Collins, R. S. Detrick, J. A. Orcutt, D. Bercovici, and E. H. Hauri, Mantle shear-wave velocity structure beneath the Hawaiian hot spot, Science 326 (no. 5958), 1388-1390, 2009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1180165