Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry Group

✦ Cameca IMS 6F ion microprobe of the Geochemistry/Cosmochemistry Group, EPL. (photo: Steve Shirey)

EPL's Geochemistry/Cosmochemistry Group

“The Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry Group —united by their ability to exploit sophisticated analytical instruments— is expert in the discovery and characterization of presolar grains; the chemistry and chronology of early solar system material, including meteorites, interplanetary dusk particles (IDPs), and samples from cometary and planetary bodies; chemical processing on Earth associated with early global differentiation, continent formation, and subduction; and dynamical mixing in the Earth's mantle revealed by products of mantle melting.” (Former Director, Sean Solomon, describing the Geochemistry/Cosmochemistry Group to Carnegie Science trustees)

The Geochemistry/Cosmochemistry Group currently is composed of four scientific staff members, Conel Alexander, Larry Nittler, Anat Shahar, and Steven Shirey, two emeritus scientific staff members, Rick Carlson and Fouad Tera, chemistry lab manager, Michelle Jordan, mass spectrometer lab manager, Tim Mock, senior research scientist and SIMS lab manager, Jianhua Wang, and diamond specialist, Janina Czas. In 2018, tragically, our group lost long-time staff member Erik Hauri. Our current postdoctoral fellows in Geochemistry are James Dottin (University of Maryland, College Park) and Peng Ni (University of Michigan). Our current postdoctoral fellows in Cosmochemistry are Jens Barosch (University of Cologne) and Zachary Torrano (Arizona State University).

A Sustained Record of Groundbreaking Research

From 1982–2022, Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry Group scientific staff authored 70 papers in Science and Nature —the world's most highly cited journals known for publishing groundbreaking research —averaging just under 2 articles a year for 40 years straight! (These figures exclude the 20 "News & Views" and "Comments" articles that are not peer reviewed and critique the science of others.)

Authorship is spread out within the group [Alexander (12), Carlson (21), Hauri (14), Nittler (19), Shirey (17), Shahar (2), Tera (3)]. This accomplishment highlights the intellectual vitality of our group and the Carnegie Institution for Science model for carrying out scientific research. Here is a list of these 70 papers with links to their PDF's.

Geochemistry/Cosmochemistry Group Papers in Science and Nature

(Thanks to EPL Librarian Shaun Hardy for compiling this list.)

Alexander, C. M. O’D., A. P. Boss, and R. W. Carlson, Cosmochemistry - The early evolution of the inner solar system: a meteoritic perspective, Science 293 (no. 5527), 64-68, 2001.

Alexander, C. M. O'D., R. Bowden, M. L. Fogel, K. T. Howard, C. D. K. Herd, L. R. Nittler, The Provenances of Asteroids, and Their Contributions to the Volatile Inventories of the Terrestrial Planets. Science 337, 721- 723 2012.

Alexander, C. M. O’D., J. N. Grossman, D. S. Ebel, and F. J. Ciesla, The formation conditions of chondrules and chondrites, Science 320 (no. 5883), 1617-1619, 2008.

Blewett, D. T., N. L. Chabot, B. W. Denevi, C. M. Ernst, J. W. Head, N. R. Izenberg, S. L. Murchie, S. C. Solomon, L. R. Nittler, T. J. McCoy, Z. Y. Xiao, D. M. H. Baker, C. I. Fassett, S. E. Braden, J. Oberst, F. Scholten, F. Preusker, and D. M. Hurwitz, Hollows on Mercury: MESSENGER evidence for geologically recent volatile-related activity, Science 333 (no. 6051), 1856-1859, 2011.

Borg, L. E., J. N. Connelly, M. Boyet, and R. W. Carlson, Chronological evidence that the Moon is either young or did not have a global magma ocean, Nature 477 (no. 7362), 70-U150, 2011.

Boyet, M., and R. W. Carlson, Nd-142 evidence for early (> 4.53 Ga) global differentiation of the silicate Earth, Science 309 (no. 5734), 576-581, 2005.

Brandon, A. D., R. A. Creaser, S. B. Shirey, and R. W. Carlson, Osmium recycling in subduction zones, Science 272 (no. 5263), 861-864, 1996.

Brown, L., J. Klein, R. Middleton, I. S. Sacks, and F. Tera, 10Be in island-arc volcanoes and implications for subduction, Nature 299, 718-720, 1982.

Brownlee, D., P. Tsou, J. Aleon, C. M. O. Alexander, T. Araki, S. Bajt, G. A. Baratta, R. Bastien, P. Bland, P. Bleuet, J. Borg, J. P. Bradley, A. Brearley, F. Brenker, S. Brennan, J. C. Bridges, N. D. Browning, J. R. Brucato, E. Bullock, M. J. Burchell, H. Busemann, A. Butterworth, M. Chaussidon, A. Cheuvront, M. F. Chi, M. J. Cintala, B. C. Clark, S. J. Clemett, G. Cody, L. Colangeli, G. Cooper, P. Cordier, C. Daghlian, Z. R. Dai, L. D'Hendecourt, Z. Djouadi, G. Dominguez, T. Duxbury, J. P. Dworkin, D. S. Ebel, T. E. Economou, S. Fakra, S. A. J. Fairey, S. Fallon, G. Ferrini, T. Ferroir, H. Fleckenstein, C. Floss, G. Flynn, I. A. Franchi, M. Fries, Z. Gainsforth, J. P. Gallien, M. Genge, M. K. Gilles, P. Gillet, J. Gilmour, D. P. Glavin, M. Gounelle, M. M. Grady, G. A. Graham, P. G. Grant, S. F. Green, F. Grossemy, L. Grossman, J. N. Grossman, Y. Guan, K. Hagiya, R. Harvey, P. Heck, G. F. Herzog, P. Hoppe, F. Horz, J. Huth, I. D. Hutcheon, K. Ignatyev, H. Ishii, M. Ito, D. Jacob, C. Jacobsen, S. Jacobsen, S. Jones, D. Joswiak, A. Jurewicz, A. T. Kearsley, L. P. Keller, H. Khodja, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, J. Kissel, A. Krot, F. Langenhorst, A. Lanzirotti, L. Le, L. A. Leshin, J. Leitner, L. Lemelle, H. Leroux, M. C. Liu, K. Luening, I. Lyon, G. MacPherson, M. A. Marcus, K. Marhas, B. Marty, G. Matrajt, K. McKeegan, A. Meibom, V. Mennella, K. Messenger, S. Messenger, T. Mikouchi, S. Mostefaoui, T. Nakamura, T. Nakano, M. Newville, L. R. Nittler, I. Ohnishi, K. Ohsumi, K. Okudaira, D. A. Papanastassiou, R. Palma, M. E. Palumbo, R. O. Pepin, D. Perkins, M. Perronnet, P. Pianetta, W. Rao, F. J. M. Rietmeijer, F. Robert, D. Rost, A. Rotundi, R. Ryan, S. A. Sandford, C. S. Schwandt, T. H. See, D. Schlutter, J. Sheffield-Parker, A. Simionovici, S. Simon, I. Sitnitsky, C. J. Snead, M. K. Spencer, F. J. Stadermann, A. Steele, T. Stephan, R. Stroud, J. Susini, S. R. Sutton, Y. Suzuki, M. Taheri, S. Taylor, N. Teslich, K. Tomeoka, N. Tomioka, A. Toppani, J. M. Trigo-Rodriguez, D. Troadec, A. Tsuchiyama, A. J. Tuzzolino, T. Tyliszczak, K. Uesugi, M. Velbel, J. Vellenga, E. Vicenzi, L. Vincze, J. Warren, I. Weber, M. Weisberg, A. J. Westphal, S. Wirick, D. Wooden, B. Wopenka, P. Wozniakiewicz, I. Wright, H. Yabuta, H. Yano, E. D. Young, R. N. Zare, T. Zega, K. Ziegler, L. Zimmerman, E. Zinner, and M. Zolensky, Comet 81P/Wild 2 under a microscope, Science 314 (no. 5806), 1711-1716, 2006.

Busemann, H., A. F. Young, C. M. O. Alexander, P. Hoppe, S. Mukhopadhyay, and L. R. Nittler, Interstellar chemistry recorded in organic matter from primitive meteorites, Science 312 (no. 5774), 727-730, 2006.

Cabral, R. A., M. G. Jackson, E. F. Rose-Koga, K. T. Koga, M. J. Whitehouse, M. A. Antonelli, J. Farquhar, J. M. D. Day, and E. H. Hauri, Anomalous sulphur isotopes in plume lavas reveal deep mantle storage of Archaean crust, Nature 496, 490-493, 2013.

Carlson, R. W., M. Boyet, and M. Horan, Chondrite barium, neodymium, and samarium isotopic heterogeneity and early earth differentiation, Science 316 (no. 5828), 1175-1178, 2007.

Carlson, R. W., D. R. Hunter, and F. Barker, Sm-Nd age and isotopic systematics of the bimodal suite, ancient gneiss complex, Swaziland, Nature 305 (no. 5936),701-704, 1983.

Carlson, R. W., Analysis of lunar samples: implications for planet formation and evolution, Science 365, 240-243, 2019.

Cleeves. L. I., E. A. Bergin, C. M. O’D. Alexander, F. J. Du, D. Graninger, K. I. Oberg, and T. J. Harries. The ancient heritage of water ice in the solar system, Science 345 (no. 6204), 1590-1593, 2014.

Cuzzi, J. N., and C. M. O. Alexander, Chondrule formation in particle-rich nebular regions at least hundreds of kilometres across, Nature 441 (no. 7092), 483-485, 2006.

Eiler, J. M., K. A. Farley, J. W. Valley, E. M. Stolper, E. H. Hauri, and H. Craig, Oxygen-isotope evidence against recycled sediment in the mantle sources of Pitcairn Island lavas, Nature 377 (no. 6545), 138-141, 1995.

Ellam, R. M., R. W. Carlson, and S. B. Shirey, Evidence from Re-Os isotopes for plume lithosphere mixing in Karoo flood-basalt genesis, Nature 359 (no. 6397),718-721, 1992.

Hauri, E. H., Major-element variability in the Hawaiian mantle plume, Nature 382 (no. 6590), 415-419, 1996.

Hauri, E. H., T. Weinreich, A. E. Saal, M. C. Rutherford, and J. A. Van Orman, High pre-eruptive water contents preserved in lunar melt Inclusions, Science 333 (no. 6039), 213-215, 2011.

Head, J. W., C. R. Chapman, R. G. Strom, C. I. Fassett, B. W. Denevi, D. T. Blewett, C. M. Ernst, T. R. Watters, S. C. Solomon, S. L. Murchie, L. M. Prockter, N. L. Chabot, J. J. Gillis-Davis, J. L. Whitten, T. A. Goudge, D. M. H. Baker, D. M. Hurwitz, L. R. Ostrach, Z. Y. Xiao, W. J. Merline, L. Kerber, J. L. Dickson, J. Oberst, P. K. Byrne, C. Klimczak, and L. R. Nittler, Flood volcanism in the northern high latitudes of Mercury revealed by MESSENGER, Science 333 (no. 6051),1853-1856, 2011.

Herd, C. D. K., A. Blinova, D. N. Simkus, Y. S. Huang, R. Tarozo, C. M. O. Alexander, F. Gyngard, L. R. Nittler, G. D. Cody, M. L. Fogel, Y. Kebukawa, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, R. W. Hilts, G. F. Slater, D. P. Glavin, J. P. Dworkin, M. P. Callahan, J. E. Elsila, B. T. De Gregorio, and R. M. Stroud, Origin and evolution of prebiotic organic matter as inferred from the Tagish Lake meteorite, Science 332 (no. 6035),1304-1307, 2011.

Jackson, M. G., and R. W. Carlson, An ancient recipe for flood-basalt genesis, Nature 476 (no. 7360), 316-U77, 2011.

Jackson, M. G., R. W. Carlson, M. D. Kurz, P. D. Kempton, D. Francis, and J. Blusztajn, Evidence for the survival of the oldest terrestrial mantle reservoir, Nature 466 (no. 7308), 853-U84, 2010.

Keller, L. P., S. Bajt, G. A. Baratta, J. Borg, J. P. Bradley, D. E. Brownlee, H. Busemann, J. R. Brucato, M. Burchell, L. Colangeli, L. d'Hendecourt, Z. Djouadi, G. Ferrini, G. Flynn, I. A. Franchi, M. Fries, M. M. Grady, G. A. Graham, F. Grossemy, A. Kearsley, G. Matrajt, K. Nakamura-Messenger, V. Mennella, L. Nittler, M. E. Palumbo, F. J. Stadermann, P. Tsou, A. Rotundi, S. A. Sandford, C. Snead, A. Steele, D. Wooden, and M. Zolensky, Infrared spectroscopy of comet 81P/Wild 2 samples returned by Stardust, Science 314 (no. 5806), 1728-1731, 2006.

Koch, P. L., J. Heisinger, C. Moss, R. W. Carlson, M. L. Fogel, and A. K. Behrensmeyer, Isotopic tracking of change in diet and habitat use in African elephants, Science 267 (no. 5202), 1340-1343, 1995.

Koeberl, C., and S. B. Shirey, Detection of a meteoritic component in Ivory Coast tektites with rhenium-osmium isotopes, Science 261 (no. 5121), 595-598, 1993.

Krot, A. N., A. Meibom, S. S. Russell, C. M. O. Alexander, T. E. Jeffries, and K. Keil, A new astrophysical setting for chondrule formation, Science 291 (no. 5509),1776-1779, 2001.

Lambert, D. D., J. W. Morgan, R. J. Walker, S. B. Shirey, R. W. Carlson, M. L. Zientek, and M. S. Koski, Rhenium-osmium and samarium-neodymium isotopic systematics of the Stillwater Complex, Science 244 (no. 4909), 1169-1174, 1989.

Lawrence, D. J., W. C. Feldman, J. O. Goldsten, S. Maurice, P. N. Peplowski, B. J. Anderson, D. Bazell, R. L. McNutt, L. R. Nittler, T. H. Prettyman, D. J. Rodgers, S. C. Solomon, S. Z. Weider, Evidence for Water Ice Near Mercury's North Pole from MESSENGER Neutron Spectrometer Measurements. Science 339, 292-296 (2013).

McKeegan, K. D., J. Aleon, J. Bradley, D. Brownlee, H. Busemann, A. Butterworth, M. Chaussidon, S. Fallon, C. Floss, J. Gilmour, M. Gounelle, G. Graham, Y. B. Guan, P. R. Heck, P. Hoppe, I. D. Hutcheon, J. Huth, H. Ishii, M. Ito, S. B. Jacobsen, A. Kearsley, L. A. Leshin, M. C. Liu, I. Lyon, K. Marhas, B. Marty, G. Matrajt, A. Meibom, S. Messenger, S. Mostefaoui, S. Mukhopadhyay, K. Nakamura-Messenger, L. Nittler, R. Palma, R. O. Pepin, D. A. Papanastassiou, F. Robert, D. Schlutter, C. J. Snead, F. J. Stadermann, R. Stroud, P. Tsou, A. Westphal, E. D. Young, K. Ziegler, L. Zimmermann, and E. Zinner, Isotopic compositions of cometary matter returned by Stardust, Science 314 (no. 5806),1724-1728, 2006.

Morris, J. D., W. P. Leeman, and F. Tera, The subducted component in island arc lavas: constraints from Be isotopes and B-Be systematics, Nature 344, 31-36, 1990.

Nittler, L. R., C. M. O. Alexander, J. Wang, and X. Gao, Meteoritic oxide grain from supernova found, Nature 393 (no. 6682), 222-222, 1998.

Nittler, L. R., R. D. Starr, S. Z. Weider, T. J. McCoy, W. V. Boynton, D. S. Ebel, C. M. Ernst, L. G. Evans, J. O. Goldsten, D. K. Hamara, D. J. Lawrence, R. L. McNutt, C. E. Schlemm, S. C. Solomon, and A. L. Sprague, The major-element composition of Mercury's surface from MESSENGER X-ray spectrometry, Science 333 (no. 6051), 1847-1850, 2011.

Olson, P., P. G. Silver, and R. W. Carlson, The large-scale structure of convection in the Earth’s mantle, Nature 344 (no. 6263), 209-215, 1990.

O'Neil, J., R. W. Carlson, D. Francis, and R. K. Stevenson, Neodymium-142 evidence for hadean mafic crust, Science 321 (no. 5897), 1828-1831, 2008.

O'Neil, J., R. W. Carlson, D. Francis, and R. K. Stevenson, Response to comment on "Neodymium-142 evidence for Hadean mafic crust", Science 325, 267b, 2009.

O’Neil, J., and R. W. Carlson. Building Archean cratons from Hadean mafic crust, Science (no. 6330), 1199-1202, 2017.

Pearson, D. G., G. A. Snyder, S. B. Shirey, L. A. Taylor, R. W. Carlson, and N. V. Sobolev, Archean Re-Os age for Siberian eclogites and constraints on Archean tectonics, Nature 374 (no. 6524), 711-713, 1995.

Peplowski, P. N., L. G. Evans, S. A. Hauck, T. J. McCoy, W. V. Boynton, J. J. Gillis-Davis, D. S. Ebel, J. O. Goldsten, D. K. Hamara, D. J. Lawrence, R. L. McNutt, L. R. Nittler, S. C. Solomon, E. A. Rhodes, A. L. Sprague, R. D. Starr, and K. R. Stockstill-Cahill, Radioactive elements on Mercury's surface from MESSENGER: implications for the planet's formation and evolution, Science 333 (no. 6051),1850-1852, 2011.

Peters, B. J., R. W. Carlson, J. M. D. Day, and M. F. Horan, Hadean silicate differentiation preserved by anomalous 142Nd/144Nd ratios in the Réunion hotspot source, Nature 555, 89-93, 2018.

Richardson, S. H., and S. B. Shirey, Continental mantle signature of Bushveld magmas and coeval diamonds, Nature 453 (no. 7197), 910-913, 2008.

Righter, K., and E. H. Hauri, Compatibility of rhenium in garnet during mantle melting and magma genesis, Science 280 (no. 5370), 1737-1741, 1998.

Rizo, H., R. J. Walker, R. W. Carlson, M. F. Horan, S. Mukhopadhyay, V. Manthos, D. Francis, and M. G. Jackson. Preservation of Earth-forming eents in the tungsten isotopic composition of modern flood basalts, Science 352 (no. 6287), 809-812, 2016.

Ryan, J. G., J. Morris, F. Tera, W. P. Leeman, and A. Tsvetkov, Cross-arc geochemical variations in the Kurile Arc as a function of slab depth, Science 270, 625-627, 1995.

Saal, A. E., S. R. Hart, N. Shimizu, E. H. Hauri, and G. D. Layne, Pb isotopic variability in melt inclusions from oceanic island basalts, Polynesia, Science 282 (no. 5393), 1481-1484, 1998.

Saal, A. E., E. H. Hauri, C. H. Langmuir, and M. R. Perfit, Vapour undersaturation in primitive mid-ocean-ridge basalt and the volatile content of Earth's upper mantle, Nature 419 (no. 6906), 451-455, 2002.

Saal, A. E., E. H. Hauri, M. Lo Cascio, J. A. Van Orman, M. C. Rutherford, and R. F. Cooper, Volatile content of lunar volcanic glasses and the presence of water in the Moon's interior, Nature 454 (no. 7201), 192-U38, 2008.

Saal, A.E, E. H. Hauri, J. A. Van Orman, M. J. Rutherford, Hydrogen Isotopes in Lunar Volcanic Glasses and Melt Inclusions Reveal a Carbonaceous Chondrite Heritage. Science 340, 1317-1320 (2013)

Sarafian, E., G. A. Gaetani, E. H. Hauri.,and A. R. Sarafian. Experimental constraints on the damp peridotite solidus and oceanic mantle potential temperature, Science 355 (no. 6328), 942-944, 2017.

Sandford, S. A., J. Aleon, C. M. O. Alexander, T. Araki, S. Bajt, G. A. Baratta, J. Borg, J. P. Bradley, D. E. Brownlee, J. R. Brucato, M. J. Burchell, H. Busemann, A. Butterworth, S. J. Clemett, G. Cody, L. Colangeli, G. Cooper, L. D'Hendecourt, Z. Djouadi, J. P. Dworkin, G. Ferrini, H. Fleckenstein, G. J. Flynn, I. A. Franchi, M. Fries, M. K. Gilles, D. P. Glavin, M. Gounelle, F. Grossemy, C. Jacobsen, L. P. Keller, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, J. Leitner, G. Matrajt, A. Meibom, V. Mennella, S. Mostefaoui, L. R. Nittler, M. E. Palumbo, D. A. Papanastassiou, F. Robert, A. Rotundi, C. J. Snead, M. K. Spencer, F. J. Stadermann, A. Steele, T. Stephan, P. Tsou, T. Tyliszczak, A. J. Westphal, S. Wirick, B. Wopenka, H. Yabuta, R. N. Zare, and M. E. Zolensky, Organics captured from comet 81P/Wild 2 by the Stardust spacecraft, Science 314 (no. 5806), 1720-1724, 2006.

Schonbachler, M., R. W. Carlson, M. F. Horan, T. D. Mock, and E. H. Hauri, Heterogeneous accretion and the moderately volatile element budget of Earth, Science 328 (no. 5980), 884-887, 2010.

Shahar, A., P. Driscoll, A. Weinberger, and G. Cody, What makes a planet habitable? Science 364, 434-435, 2019.

Shahar, A., E. A. Schauble, R. Caracas, A. E. Gleason, M. M. Reagan, Y. Xiao, J. Shu, and W. Mao, Pressure-dependent isotopic composition of iron alloys, Science 352, 580-582, 2016.

Shirey, S. B., J. F. Bender, and C. H. Langmuir, 3-component isotopic heterogeneity near the Oceanographer Transform, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Nature 325 (no. 6101), 217-223, 1987.

Shirey, S. B., and G. N. Hanson, Mantle-derived Archean monozodiorites and trachyandesites, Nature 310 (no. 5974), 222-224, 1984.

Shirey, S. B., J. W. Harris, S. H. Richardson, M. J. Fouch, D. E. James, P. Cartigny, P. Deines, and F. Viljoen, Diamond genesis, seismic structure, and evolution of the Kaapvaal-Zimbabwe craton, Science 297 (no. 5587), 1683-1686, 2002.

Shirey, S. B., and S. H. Richardson, Start of the Wilson Cycle at 3 Ga shown by diamonds from subcontinental mantle, Science 333 (no. 6041), 434-436, 2011.

Slavin, J. A., M. H. Acuna, B. J. Anderson, D. N. Baker, M. Benna, G. Gloeckler, R. E. Gold, G. C. Ho, R. M. Killen, H. Korth, S. M. Krimigis, R. L. McNutt, L. R. Nittler, J. M. Raines, D. Schriver, S. C. Solomon, R. D. Starr, P. Travnicek, and T. H. Zurbuchen, Mercury's magnetosphere after MESSENGER's first flyby, Science 321 (no. 5885), 85-89, 2008.

Slavin, J. A., B. J. Anderson, D. N. Baker, M. Benna, S. A. Boardsen, G. Gloeckler, R. E. Gold, G. C. Ho, H. Korth, S. M. Krimigis, R. L. McNutt, L. R. Nittler, J. M. Raines, M. Sarantos, D. Schriver, S. C. Solomon, R. D. Starr, P. M. Travnicek, and T. H. Zurbuchen, MESSENGER observations of extreme loading and unloading of Mercury's magnetic tail, Science 329 (no. 5992), 665-668, 2010.

Smit, K.V., Shirey, S.B., Hauri, E.H., and Stern, R.A. (2019) Sulfur isotopes in diamonds reveal differences in continent construction. Science 364, 383-385.

Smith, E. M., S. B. Shirey, F. Nestola, E. S. Bullock, J. H. Wang, S. H. Richardson, and W. Y. Wang. Large gem diamonds from metallic liquid in Earth’s deep mantle,Science 354 (no. 6318), 1403-1405, 2016.

Smith, E. M., Shirey, S. B., Richardson S. H., Nestola, F., Bullock, E. S., Wang, J., & Wang, W. (2018). Blue boron-bearing diamonds from Earth’s lower mantle. Nature, 560, 84–87.

Smith, E. M., S. B. Shirey, S. H. Richardson, F. Nestola, E. S. Bullock, J. Wang, and W. Wang, Reply to: Evidence for two blue (type IIb) diamond populations, Nature 570, E28-E29, 2019.

Steele,A., F. M. McCubbin, M. Fries, L. Kater, N. Z. Boctor, M. L. Fogel, P. G. Conrad, M. Glamoclija, M. Spencer, A. L. Morrow, M. R. Hammond, R. N. Zare, E. P. Vicenzi, S. Siljestrom, R. Bowden, C. D. K. Herd, B. O. Mysen, S. B. Shirey, H. E. F. Amundsen, A. H. Treiman, E. S. Bullock, A. J. T. Jull, A Reduced Organic Carbon Component in Martian Basalts. Science 337, 212-215 (2012)

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