Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry Group

✦ Cameca 6F ion microprobe of the Geochemistry/Cosmochemistry Group, DTM. (photo: Steve Shirey)

DTM's Geochemistry/Cosmochemistry Group

“The DTM Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry Group —united by their ability to exploit sophisticated analytical instruments— is expert in the discovery and characterization of presolar grains; the chemistry and chronology of early solar system material, including meteorites, interplanetary dusk particles (IDPs), and samples from cometary and planetary bodies; chemical processing on Earth associated with early global differentiation, continent formation, and subduction; and dynamical mixing in the Earth's mantle revealed by products of mantle melting.” (Former Director, Sean Solomon, describing the G/CG to Carnegie trustees)

The Geochemistry/Cosmochemistry Group has four current staff members, Conel Alexander, Larry Nittler, Anat Shahar, and Steven Shirey and two emeritus staff members, Rick Carlson and Fouad Tera. Our group recently lost long-time staff member Erik Hauri. With the support of chemistry lab manager, Michelle Jordan, mass spectrometer lab manager, Tim Mock, and ion probe specialist, Jianhua Wang, research projects involving the staff can range from a short, informal nature to those that are long term. Research collaborations are welcome on almost any professional level: as an intern, a pre-doctoral fellow, a post-doctoral fellow, a visiting scientist, or a Tuve Fellow. Many projects are NSF or NASA funded, but with the Carnegie Institution’s high level of ongoing lab support, important scientific questions can be attacked without the proposal lead-time that NSF or NASA funding requires. The most fruitful collaborations are those that align with the interests of the staff and the type of analyses suited to our facilities (see below).

The scientific environment at DTM is stimulating and the Washington area is the best in the world as a supportive environment for science. The Washington area hosts a remarkable collection of institutions and laboratories with which joint research projects often can be carried out: Geophysical Lab, Goddard Space Flight Center, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Naval Research Laboratory, Smithsonian Institution, US Geological Survey, and University of Maryland. Many have ongoing programs in Earth and Planetary Science. Interested in the possibilities? Please contact any one of the staff directly and/or see Academic Opportunities page.

Available Analytical Facilities

Thermal ionization mass spectrometer: Thermo-Fisher Triton

Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer: Nu Plasma HR, Nu Plasma II, Thermo iCap Qc

Secondary ion mass spectrometer: NanoSIMS 50L, Cameca IMS 6f

Scanning electron microscope: JOEL SX-6500,

Available with Geophysical Lab: JOEL Field Emission EPMA, Zeiss Auriga SEM, FEI plasma FIB, WiTec confocal Raman

Chemistry labs: Multiple clean-room facility equipped for all aspects of sample preparation

Supporting labs: Optical microscopy lab, microsampling, rock room, machine shop, electronics lab

A more detailed description of these analytical facilities can be found on the DTM web page here.

A Tradition of Groundbreaking Research

As of March 2019, the 5-person Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry Group staff had authored some 60 separate, independent papers in Science and Nature –highly cited journals known for publishing groundbreaking research. This accomplishment highlights the intellectual vitality of our group and indeed the whole Carnegie Institution model for carrying out scientific research. A list of these papers with links to their PDF's can be seen below.

Tot (w/ no dups)

Nature (17)

Science (43)
















Geochemistry/Cosmochemistry Group Papers in Science and Nature

Alexander, C. M. O’D., A. P. Boss, and R. W. Carlson, Cosmochemistry - The early evolution of the inner solar system: a meteoritic perspective, Science 293 (no. 5527), 64-68, 2001.

Alexander, C. M. O'D., R. Bowden, M. L. Fogel, K. T. Howard, C. D. K. Herd, L. R. Nittler, The Provenances of Asteroids, and Their Contributions to the Volatile Inventories of the Terrestrial Planets. Science 337, 721- 723 (2012)

Alexander, C. M. O’D., J. N. Grossman, D. S. Ebel, and F. J. Ciesla, The formation conditions of chondrules and chondrites, Science 320 (no. 5883), 1617-1619, 2008.

Blewett, D. T., N. L. Chabot, B. W. Denevi, C. M. Ernst, J. W. Head, N. R. Izenberg, S. L. Murchie, S. C. Solomon, L. R. Nittler, T. J. McCoy, Z. Y. Xiao, D. M. H. Baker, C. I. Fassett, S. E. Braden, J. Oberst, F. Scholten, F. Preusker, and D. M. Hurwitz, Hollows on Mercury: MESSENGER evidence for geologically recent volatile-related activity, Science 333 (no. 6051), 1856-1859, 2011.

Borg, L. E., J. N. Connelly, M. Boyet, and R. W. Carlson, Chronological evidence that the Moon is either young or did not have a global magma ocean, Nature 477 (no. 7362), 70-U150, 2011.

Boyet, M., and R. W. Carlson, Nd-142 evidence for early (> 4.53 Ga) global differentiation of the silicate Earth, Science 309 (no. 5734), 576-581, 2005.

Brandon, A. D., R. A. Creaser, S. B. Shirey, and R. W. Carlson, Osmium recycling in subduction zones, Science 272 (no. 5263), 861-864, 1996.

Brownlee, D., P. Tsou, J. Aleon, C. M. O. Alexander, T. Araki, S. Bajt, G. A. Baratta, R. Bastien, P. Bland, P. Bleuet, J. Borg, J. P. Bradley, A. Brearley, F. Brenker, S. Brennan, J. C. Bridges, N. D. Browning, J. R. Brucato, E. Bullock, M. J. Burchell, H. Busemann, A. Butterworth, M. Chaussidon, A. Cheuvront, M. F. Chi, M. J. Cintala, B. C. Clark, S. J. Clemett, G. Cody, L. Colangeli, G. Cooper, P. Cordier, C. Daghlian, Z. R. Dai, L. D'Hendecourt, Z. Djouadi, G. Dominguez, T. Duxbury, J. P. Dworkin, D. S. Ebel, T. E. Economou, S. Fakra, S. A. J. Fairey, S. Fallon, G. Ferrini, T. Ferroir, H. Fleckenstein, C. Floss, G. Flynn, I. A. Franchi, M. Fries, Z. Gainsforth, J. P. Gallien, M. Genge, M. K. Gilles, P. Gillet, J. Gilmour, D. P. Glavin, M. Gounelle, M. M. Grady, G. A. Graham, P. G. Grant, S. F. Green, F. Grossemy, L. Grossman, J. N. Grossman, Y. Guan, K. Hagiya, R. Harvey, P. Heck, G. F. Herzog, P. Hoppe, F. Horz, J. Huth, I. D. Hutcheon, K. Ignatyev, H. Ishii, M. Ito, D. Jacob, C. Jacobsen, S. Jacobsen, S. Jones, D. Joswiak, A. Jurewicz, A. T. Kearsley, L. P. Keller, H. Khodja, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, J. Kissel, A. Krot, F. Langenhorst, A. Lanzirotti, L. Le, L. A. Leshin, J. Leitner, L. Lemelle, H. Leroux, M. C. Liu, K. Luening, I. Lyon, G. MacPherson, M. A. Marcus, K. Marhas, B. Marty, G. Matrajt, K. McKeegan, A. Meibom, V. Mennella, K. Messenger, S. Messenger, T. Mikouchi, S. Mostefaoui, T. Nakamura, T. Nakano, M. Newville, L. R. Nittler, I. Ohnishi, K. Ohsumi, K. Okudaira, D. A. Papanastassiou, R. Palma, M. E. Palumbo, R. O. Pepin, D. Perkins, M. Perronnet, P. Pianetta, W. Rao, F. J. M. Rietmeijer, F. Robert, D. Rost, A. Rotundi, R. Ryan, S. A. Sandford, C. S. Schwandt, T. H. See, D. Schlutter, J. Sheffield-Parker, A. Simionovici, S. Simon, I. Sitnitsky, C. J. Snead, M. K. Spencer, F. J. Stadermann, A. Steele, T. Stephan, R. Stroud, J. Susini, S. R. Sutton, Y. Suzuki, M. Taheri, S. Taylor, N. Teslich, K. Tomeoka, N. Tomioka, A. Toppani, J. M. Trigo-Rodriguez, D. Troadec, A. Tsuchiyama, A. J. Tuzzolino, T. Tyliszczak, K. Uesugi, M. Velbel, J. Vellenga, E. Vicenzi, L. Vincze, J. Warren, I. Weber, M. Weisberg, A. J. Westphal, S. Wirick, D. Wooden, B. Wopenka, P. Wozniakiewicz, I. Wright, H. Yabuta, H. Yano, E. D. Young, R. N. Zare, T. Zega, K. Ziegler, L. Zimmerman, E. Zinner, and M. Zolensky, Comet 81P/Wild 2 under a microscope, Science 314 (no. 5806), 1711-1716, 2006.

Busemann, H., A. F. Young, C. M. O. Alexander, P. Hoppe, S. Mukhopadhyay, and L. R. Nittler, Interstellar chemistry recorded in organic matter from primitive meteorites, Science 312 (no. 5774), 727-730, 2006.

Carlson, R. W., M. Boyet, and M. Horan, Chondrite barium, neodymium, and samarium isotopic heterogeneity and early earth differentiation, Science 316 (no. 5828), 1175-1178, 2007.

Carlson, R. W., D. R. Hunter, and F. Barker, Sm-Nd age and isotopic systematics of the bimodal suite, ancient gneiss complex, Swaziland, Nature 305 (no. 5936),701-704, 1983.

Cleeves. L. I., E. A. Bergin, C. M. O’D. Alexander, F. J. Du, D. Graninger, K. I. Oberg, and T. J. Harries. The ancient heritage of water ice in the solar system, Science 345 (no. 6204), 1590-1593, 2014.

Cuzzi, J. N., and C. M. O. Alexander, Chondrule formation in particle-rich nebular regions at least hundreds of kilometres across, Nature 441 (no. 7092), 483-485, 2006.

Eiler, J. M., K. A. Farley, J. W. Valley, E. M. Stolper, E. H. Hauri, and H. Craig, Oxygen-isotope evidence against recycled sediment in the mantle sources of Pitcairn Island lavas, Nature 377 (no. 6545), 138-141, 1995.

Ellam, R. M., R. W. Carlson, and S. B. Shirey, Evidence from Re-Os isotopes for plume lithosphere mixing in Karoo flood-basalt genesis, Nature 359 (no. 6397),718-721, 1992.

Hauri, E. H., Major-element variability in the Hawaiian mantle plume, Nature 382 (no. 6590), 415-419, 1996.

Hauri, E. H., T. Weinreich, A. E. Saal, M. C. Rutherford, and J. A. Van Orman, High pre-eruptive water contents preserved in lunar melt Inclusions, Science 333 (no. 6039), 213-215, 2011.

Head, J. W., C. R. Chapman, R. G. Strom, C. I. Fassett, B. W. Denevi, D. T. Blewett, C. M. Ernst, T. R. Watters, S. C. Solomon, S. L. Murchie, L. M. Prockter, N. L. Chabot, J. J. Gillis-Davis, J. L. Whitten, T. A. Goudge, D. M. H. Baker, D. M. Hurwitz, L. R. Ostrach, Z. Y. Xiao, W. J. Merline, L. Kerber, J. L. Dickson, J. Oberst, P. K. Byrne, C. Klimczak, and L. R. Nittler, Flood volcanism in the northern high latitudes of Mercury revealed by MESSENGER, Science 333 (no. 6051),1853-1856, 2011.

Herd, C. D. K., A. Blinova, D. N. Simkus, Y. S. Huang, R. Tarozo, C. M. O. Alexander, F. Gyngard, L. R. Nittler, G. D. Cody, M. L. Fogel, Y. Kebukawa, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, R. W. Hilts, G. F. Slater, D. P. Glavin, J. P. Dworkin, M. P. Callahan, J. E. Elsila, B. T. De Gregorio, and R. M. Stroud, Origin and evolution of prebiotic organic matter as inferred from the Tagish Lake meteorite, Science 332 (no. 6035),1304-1307, 2011.

Jackson, M. G., and R. W. Carlson, An ancient recipe for flood-basalt genesis, Nature 476 (no. 7360), 316-U77, 2011.

Jackson, M. G., R. W. Carlson, M. D. Kurz, P. D. Kempton, D. Francis, and J. Blusztajn, Evidence for the survival of the oldest terrestrial mantle reservoir, Nature 466 (no. 7308), 853-U84, 2010.

Keller, L. P., S. Bajt, G. A. Baratta, J. Borg, J. P. Bradley, D. E. Brownlee, H. Busemann, J. R. Brucato, M. Burchell, L. Colangeli, L. d'Hendecourt, Z. Djouadi, G. Ferrini, G. Flynn, I. A. Franchi, M. Fries, M. M. Grady, G. A. Graham, F. Grossemy, A. Kearsley, G. Matrajt, K. Nakamura-Messenger, V. Mennella, L. Nittler, M. E. Palumbo, F. J. Stadermann, P. Tsou, A. Rotundi, S. A. Sandford, C. Snead, A. Steele, D. Wooden, and M. Zolensky, Infrared spectroscopy of comet 81P/Wild 2 samples returned by Stardust, Science 314 (no. 5806), 1728-1731, 2006.

Koch, P. L., J. Heisinger, C. Moss, R. W. Carlson, M. L. Fogel, and A. K. Behrensmeyer, Isotopic tracking of change in diet and habitat use in African elephants, Science 267 (no. 5202), 1340-1343, 1995.

Koeberl, C., and S. B. Shirey, Detection of a meteoritic component in Ivory Coast tektites with rhenium-osmium isotopes, Science 261 (no. 5121), 595-598, 1993.

Krot, A. N., A. Meibom, S. S. Russell, C. M. O. Alexander, T. E. Jeffries, and K. Keil, A new astrophysical setting for chondrule formation, Science 291 (no. 5509),1776-1779, 2001.

Lambert, D. D., J. W. Morgan, R. J. Walker, S. B. Shirey, R. W. Carlson, M. L. Zientek, and M. S. Koski, Rhenium-osmium and samarium-neodymium isotopic systematics of the Stillwater Complex, Science 244 (no. 4909), 1169-1174, 1989.

Lawrence, D. J., W. C. Feldman, J. O. Goldsten, S. Maurice, P. N. Peplowski, B. J. Anderson, D. Bazell, R. L. McNutt, L. R. Nittler, T. H. Prettyman, D. J. Rodgers, S. C. Solomon, S. Z. Weider, Evidence for Water Ice Near Mercury's North Pole from MESSENGER Neutron Spectrometer Measurements. Science 339, 292-296 (2013)

McKeegan, K. D., J. Aleon, J. Bradley, D. Brownlee, H. Busemann, A. Butterworth, M. Chaussidon, S. Fallon, C. Floss, J. Gilmour, M. Gounelle, G. Graham, Y. B. Guan, P. R. Heck, P. Hoppe, I. D. Hutcheon, J. Huth, H. Ishii, M. Ito, S. B. Jacobsen, A. Kearsley, L. A. Leshin, M. C. Liu, I. Lyon, K. Marhas, B. Marty, G. Matrajt, A. Meibom, S. Messenger, S. Mostefaoui, S. Mukhopadhyay, K. Nakamura-Messenger, L. Nittler, R. Palma, R. O. Pepin, D. A. Papanastassiou, F. Robert, D. Schlutter, C. J. Snead, F. J. Stadermann, R. Stroud, P. Tsou, A. Westphal, E. D. Young, K. Ziegler, L. Zimmermann, and E. Zinner, Isotopic compositions of cometary matter returned by Stardust, Science 314 (no. 5806),1724-1728, 2006.

Nittler, L. R., C. M. O. Alexander, J. Wang, and X. Gao, Meteoritic oxide grain from supernova found, Nature 393 (no. 6682), 222-222, 1998.

Nittler, L. R., R. D. Starr, S. Z. Weider, T. J. McCoy, W. V. Boynton, D. S. Ebel, C. M. Ernst, L. G. Evans, J. O. Goldsten, D. K. Hamara, D. J. Lawrence, R. L. McNutt, C. E. Schlemm, S. C. Solomon, and A. L. Sprague, The major-element composition of Mercury's surface from MESSENGER X-ray spectrometry, Science 333 (no. 6051), 1847-1850, 2011.

Olson, P., P. G. Silver, and R. W. Carlson, The large-scale structure of convection in the Earth’s mantle, Nature 344 (no. 6263), 209-215, 1990.

O'Neil, J., R. W. Carlson, D. Francis, and R. K. Stevenson, Neodymium-142 evidence for hadean mafic crust, Science 321 (no. 5897), 1828-1831, 2008.

O’Neil, J., and R. W. Carlson. Building Archean cratons from Hadean mafic crust, Science (no. 6330), 1199-1202, 2017.

Pearson, D. G., G. A. Snyder, S. B. Shirey, L. A. Taylor, R. W. Carlson, and N. V. Sobolev, Archean Re-Os age for Siberian eclogites and constraints on Archean tectonics, Nature 374 (no. 6524), 711-713, 1995.

Peplowski, P. N., L. G. Evans, S. A. Hauck, T. J. McCoy, W. V. Boynton, J. J. Gillis-Davis, D. S. Ebel, J. O. Goldsten, D. K. Hamara, D. J. Lawrence, R. L. McNutt, L. R. Nittler, S. C. Solomon, E. A. Rhodes, A. L. Sprague, R. D. Starr, and K. R. Stockstill-Cahill, Radioactive elements on Mercury's surface from MESSENGER: implications for the planet's formation and evolution, Science 333 (no. 6051),1850-1852, 2011.

Richardson, S. H., and S. B. Shirey, Continental mantle signature of Bushveld magmas and coeval diamonds, Nature 453 (no. 7197), 910-913, 2008.

Righter, K., and E. H. Hauri, Compatibility of rhenium in garnet during mantle melting and magma genesis, Science 280 (no. 5370), 1737-1741, 1998.

Rizo, H., R. J. Walker, R. W. Carlson, M. F. Horan, S. Mukhopadhyay, V. Manthos, D. Francis, and M. G. Jackson. Preservation of Earth-forming eents in the tungsten isotopic composition of modern flood basalts, Science 352 (no. 6287), 809-812, 2016.

Saal, A. E., S. R. Hart, N. Shimizu, E. H. Hauri, and G. D. Layne, Pb isotopic variability in melt inclusions from oceanic island basalts, Polynesia, Science 282 (no. 5393), 1481-1484, 1998.

Saal, A. E., E. H. Hauri, C. H. Langmuir, and M. R. Perfit, Vapour undersaturation in primitive mid-ocean-ridge basalt and the volatile content of Earth's upper mantle, Nature 419 (no. 6906), 451-455, 2002.

Saal, A. E., E. H. Hauri, M. Lo Cascio, J. A. Van Orman, M. C. Rutherford, and R. F. Cooper, Volatile content of lunar volcanic glasses and the presence of water in the Moon's interior, Nature 454 (no. 7201), 192-U38, 2008.

Saal,A.E, E. H. Hauri, J. A. Van Orman, M. J. Rutherford, Hydrogen Isotopes in Lunar Volcanic Glasses and Melt Inclusions Reveal a Carbonaceous Chondrite Heritage. Science 340, 1317-1320 (2013)

Sarafian, E., G. A. Gaetani, E. H. Hauri.,and A. R. Sarafian. Experimental constraints on the damp peridotite solidus and oceanic mantle potential temperature, Science 355 (no. 6328), 942-944, 2017.

Sandford, S. A., J. Aleon, C. M. O. Alexander, T. Araki, S. Bajt, G. A. Baratta, J. Borg, J. P. Bradley, D. E. Brownlee, J. R. Brucato, M. J. Burchell, H. Busemann, A. Butterworth, S. J. Clemett, G. Cody, L. Colangeli, G. Cooper, L. D'Hendecourt, Z. Djouadi, J. P. Dworkin, G. Ferrini, H. Fleckenstein, G. J. Flynn, I. A. Franchi, M. Fries, M. K. Gilles, D. P. Glavin, M. Gounelle, F. Grossemy, C. Jacobsen, L. P. Keller, A. L. D. Kilcoyne, J. Leitner, G. Matrajt, A. Meibom, V. Mennella, S. Mostefaoui, L. R. Nittler, M. E. Palumbo, D. A. Papanastassiou, F. Robert, A. Rotundi, C. J. Snead, M. K. Spencer, F. J. Stadermann, A. Steele, T. Stephan, P. Tsou, T. Tyliszczak, A. J. Westphal, S. Wirick, B. Wopenka, H. Yabuta, R. N. Zare, and M. E. Zolensky, Organics captured from comet 81P/Wild 2 by the Stardust spacecraft, Science 314 (no. 5806), 1720-1724, 2006.

Schonbachler, M., R. W. Carlson, M. F. Horan, T. D. Mock, and E. H. Hauri, Heterogeneous accretion and the moderately volatile element budget of Earth, Science 328 (no. 5980), 884-887, 2010.

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Shirey, S. B., and S. H. Richardson, Start of the Wilson Cycle at 3 Ga shown by diamonds from subcontinental mantle, Science 333 (no. 6041), 434-436, 2011.

Slavin, J. A., M. H. Acuna, B. J. Anderson, D. N. Baker, M. Benna, G. Gloeckler, R. E. Gold, G. C. Ho, R. M. Killen, H. Korth, S. M. Krimigis, R. L. McNutt, L. R. Nittler, J. M. Raines, D. Schriver, S. C. Solomon, R. D. Starr, P. Travnicek, and T. H. Zurbuchen, Mercury's magnetosphere after MESSENGER's first flyby, Science 321 (no. 5885), 85-89, 2008.

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Smit, K.V., Shirey, S.B., Hauri, E.H., and Stern, R.A. (2019) Sulfur isotopes in diamonds reveal differences in continent construction. Science 364, 383-385.

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Smith, E. M., Shirey, S. B., Richardson S. H., Nestola, F., Bullock, E. S., Wang, J., & Wang, W. (2018). Blue boron-bearing diamonds from Earth’s lower mantle. Nature, 560, 84–87.

Steele,A., F. M. McCubbin, M. Fries, L. Kater, N. Z. Boctor, M. L. Fogel, P. G. Conrad, M. Glamoclija, M. Spencer, A. L. Morrow, M. R. Hammond, R. N. Zare, E. P. Vicenzi, S. Siljestrom, R. Bowden, C. D. K. Herd, B. O. Mysen, S. B. Shirey, H. E. F. Amundsen, A. H. Treiman, E. S. Bullock, A. J. T. Jull, A Reduced Organic Carbon Component in Martian Basalts. Science 337, 212-215 (2012)

Stroud, R. M., L. R. Nittler, and C. M. O. Alexander, Polymorphism in presolar Al2O3 grains from asymptotic giant branch stars, Science 305 (no. 5689), 1455-1457, 2004.

Walter, M. J., S. C. Kohn, D. Araujo, G. P. Bulanova, C. B. Smith, E. Gaillou, J. Wang, A. Steele, and S. B. Shirey, Deep mantle cycling of oceanic crust: evidence from diamonds and their mineral inclusions, Science 333 (no. 6052), 54-57, 2011.

Westphal, A. J., R. M. Stroud, H. A. Bechtel, F. E. Brenker, A. L. Butterworth, G. J. Flynn, D. R. Frank, Z. Gainsforth, J. K. Hillier, F. Postberg, A. S. Simionovici, V. J. Sterken, L. R. Nittler, C. Allen, D. Anderson, A. Ansari, S. Bajt, R. K. Bastien, N. Bassim, J. Bridges, D. E. Brownlee, M. Burchell, M. Burghammer, H. Changela, P. Cloetens, A. M. Davis, R. Doll, C. Floss, E. Grün, P. R. Heck, P. Hoppe, B. Hudson, J. Huth, A. Kearsley, A. J. King, B. Lai, J. Leitner, L. Lemelle, A. Leonard, H. Leroux, R. Lettieri, W. Marchant, R. Ogliore, W. J. Ong, M. C. Price, S. A. Sandford, J.-A. Sans Tresseras, S. Schmitz, T. Schoonjans, K. Schreiber, G. Silversmit, V. A. Solé, R. Srama, F. Stadermann, T. Stephan, J. Stodolna, S. Sutton, M. Trieloff, P. Tsou, T. Tyliszczak, B. Vekemans, L. Vincze, J. Von Korff, N. Wordsworth, D. Zevin, M. E. Zolensky, 30714 Stardust@home dusters. Evidence for interstellar origin of seven dust particles collected by the Stardust spacecraft, Science 345 (no. 6198), 786-791, 2014. DOI: 10.1126/science.1252496Wilson, A. H., S. B. Shirey, and R. W. Carlson, Archaean ultra-depleted komatiites formed by hydrous melting of cratonic mantle, Nature 423 (no. 6942), 858-861, 2003.

Wilson, A.H., S. B. Shirey, R. W. Carlson, Archaean ultra-depleted komatiites formed by hydrous melting of cratonic mantle. Nature 423, 858-861 (2003)

Wolfe, C. J., S. C. Solomon, G. Laske, J. A. Collins, R. S. Detrick, J. A. Orcutt, D. Bercovici, and E. H. Hauri, Mantle shear-wave velocity structure beneath the Hawaiian hot spot, Science 326 (no. 5958), 1388-1390, 2009.